Fig. 2


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Types of relationship between disciplines. 1 and 2 – Interdisciplinarity: 1- several disciplines converge to resolve a specific issue; 2- two disciplines hybridize to form a third in a process of disciplinarization. 3- Transdisciplinarity: the research process brings together scientists, politicians, economists, etc., in a single process to build ‘new knowledge’ in a different kind of relationship. 4- ‘Enlightened disciplinarity’: all disciplines study the same object, considering and directly integrating the contributions of the others, feeding on these exchanges which may be reiterated as often as necessary, with the aim of putting forward a holistic understanding of the complex system studied (sources: 1 and 4, Chenorkian; 2 and 3, McPhee et al., 2018, p. 4). All illustrations apply the codes of McPhee et al., 2018, p. 4.

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